Why do people yearn to change their eye color or seek correction for corneal defects? Keratopigmentation in Iran offers a groundbreaking solution to these desires and needs, blending cutting-edge technology with unparalleled expertise. This article unveils the intricate world of KTP, from the nuanced techniques and pigment innovations to the comprehensive care that underscores each procedure.

Follow this article about Keratopigmentation—a blend of science, art, and the promise of a renewed vision. Let this guide inspire your path to visual and aesthetic enhancement.

Keratopigmentation (KTP) in Iran represents a frontier in the field of ophthalmology, combining ancient practices with modern medical advancements. This technique, also known as corneal tattooing, has evolved significantly over the years from a rudimentary form of eye injury treatment to a refined procedure for both cosmetic and therapeutic purposes.

The Evolution of Corneal Tattooing

The journey of corneal tattooing from its inception to the contemporary practice of Keratopigmentation is a tale of medical ingenuity. Initially, this technique was utilized to mask corneal scars and improve the appearance of the eye following injuries or diseases.

However, with the advent of modern medical technologies and the pioneering efforts of specialists, KTP has transformed into a sophisticated procedure that offers both cosmetic and therapeutic benefits.

  • Historical Background: Dating back over two millennia, ancient physicians first documented corneal tattooing using rudimentary tools and techniques to perform the procedure. These early interventions aimed to improve visual aesthetics for patients with corneal scars.
  • Modern Advancements: In recent years, the introduction of laser technologies and advanced pigments has revolutionized Keratopigmentation, making it safer, more effective, and versatile. Specialists in Iran have been at the forefront of these innovations, contributing to the global body of knowledge with research and development in KTP techniques.

Table: Comparison of Keratopigmentation Techniques in Iran


Manual Intralamellar KTP

Femtosecond Laser-Assisted KTP (FLAK)


Pigment insertion using a fine needle

The precise laser creates a corneal plane for pigment insertion


Targeted pigment placement, more affordable

Minimizes corneal trauma, uniform pigment distribution


Requires high surgeon skill, potential for pigment migration

More expensive and may not be suitable for all cases


Corneal defects, targeted color changes

Large-scale color changes, complex eye conditions

Keratopigmentation for Eye Color Change

The application of Keratopigmentation for eye color change is a testament to the procedure’s versatility and the skill of Iranian practitioners. Patients seeking to alter their eye color for cosmetic reasons can now achieve their desired hue through a safe and reversible process.

  • The Process: Keratopigmentation involves carefully inserting biocompatible pigments into the corneal stroma, allowing for a change in eye color without affecting vision. Skilled surgeons meticulously plan and execute this process to ensure optimal outcomes and patient satisfaction.
  • Outcomes of Changing Eye Color: The success of eye color change through KTP lies in its ability to provide natural-looking results tailored to the patient’s preferences. Moreover, the procedure is reversible, offering patients the flexibility to revert to their original eye color or opt for a different shade in the future.
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The Procedure of Keratopigmentation

Keratopigmentation in Iran is a pioneering procedure that has gained prominence for its effectiveness in changing eye color and treating corneal defects. This meticulous process involves several critical steps, from the initial consultation to post-operative care, ensuring patient safety and desired outcomes.

Initial Consultation and Evaluation

The journey to successful Keratopigmentation begins with a thorough initial consultation and evaluation. This pivotal stage is where specialists assess the suitability of candidates for the procedure, considering their medical history, eye health, and aesthetic or therapeutic goals.

  • Determining candidacy for KTP: Not everyone is a suitable candidate for Keratopigmentation. Factors such as eye health, the presence of eye diseases, and the reasons for seeking the procedure are carefully evaluated. This ensures that KTP offers the most benefit to those who undergo it, minimizing risks and maximizing satisfaction.

Choosing the Right Pigment

Selecting the appropriate pigment is crucial for achieving the desired eye color while ensuring the safety and longevity of the results. Specialists in Iran utilize a spectrum of pigments approved for ocular use, each with unique properties and suitability for different eye colors and patient preferences.

Factors in pigment selection for optimal results

The choice of pigment is influenced by several factors, including the patient’s natural eye color, the desired outcome, and the pigment’s compatibility with the eye’s physiology. The expertise of Iranian specialists in making this choice is central to the procedure’s success.

Keratopigmentation Techniques in Iran

Keratopigmentation (KTP), widely recognized for its innovative approach to altering eye color and addressing corneal defects, employs various techniques to insert pigment into the cornea. Each method offers unique advantages tailored to meet the specific needs and goals of the patient. Iranian experts have mastered these techniques, ensuring high precision and optimal outcomes.

Pigment Insertion Methods

The selection of the appropriate Keratopigmentation technique is critical for the success of the procedure. It involves evaluating the patient’s condition, desired results, and potential for recovery. Two primary methods are predominantly used:

  1. Manual intralamellar KTP: This traditional approach involves manually inserting pigment into the corneal layers using a fine needle. It is particularly suited for targeted pigment placement, allowing for precise control over the depth and concentration of pigment insertion. This technique is favored for its simplicity and effectiveness in cases where specific areas of the cornea need to be addressed.
  2. Femtosecond laser-assisted KTP (FLAK): A more advanced technique, FLAK utilizes a femtosecond laser to create a precise, controlled plane within the cornea into which pigment is inserted. This method offers unparalleled precision, minimizing the risk of corneal trauma and allowing for uniform pigment distribution. It is especially beneficial for comprehensive color changes or treating larger corneal areas

Advancements in Pigment Technology

The evolution of pigment technology has significantly enhanced the safety, efficacy, and aesthetic outcomes of Keratopigmentation. Third-generation pigments represent the cutting edge in this evolution, characterized by their improved biocompatibility and stability.

  • Third-generation pigments and their benefits:
    • Enhanced Safety: Developed to minimize the risk of adverse reactions, these pigments undergo rigorous testing to ensure they are safe for use in the eye.
    • Long-lasting Results: Their improved stability reduces the likelihood of pigment migration or fading over time, ensuring that the desired eye color remains consistent.
    • Vibrant Colors: These pigments offer a wider range of color options, allowing for more natural and vivid eye color changes that can closely mimic the appearance of a natural iris. 

Benefits and Risks of Keratopigmentation

Keratopigmentation (KTP) in Iran has emerged as a revolutionary technique in the field of ophthalmology, offering both aesthetic and therapeutic solutions for individuals seeking eye color change or correction of corneal and iris defects. Despite its numerous advantages, like any medical procedure, it has its share of potential complications and risks that must be considered.

  • Enhanced Aesthetic Appearance
    • KTP provides a unique opportunity for individuals to alter their eye color, fulfilling cosmetic desires or personal preferences for eye appearance.
    • The procedure can significantly boost self-confidence and psychological well-being for those who have long sought to change a key aspect of their appearance.
  • Correction of Corneal and Iris Defects
    • Therapeutically, KTP serves as a valuable option for patients with corneal opacities, irregularities, or iris defects, effectively improving visual function and eye appearance.
    • It offers an alternative for patients who may not be suitable candidates for more invasive surgeries or those looking for a less intrusive solution.





Bacteria introduced during the procedure

Antibiotics, close monitoring

Pigment migration

Pigment movement from the original site

Monitoring, potential corrective procedures

Inflammatory response

Body’s reaction to pigment or procedure

Anti-inflammatory medication, steroid eye drops

Short-term discomfort

Redness, swelling, irritation

Pain medication, eye drops, rest

Long-term color fading

Pigment lightening over time

Touch-up procedures

Potential Complications

Despite the high precision and safety protocols followed in KTP, potential complications can arise, necessitating thorough pre-procedure evaluations and discussions between the patient and the surgeon.

  • Infection: Though rare, any procedure involving the eye carries a risk of infection, which can be mitigated with proper post-operative care and the use of prescribed antibiotics.
  • Pigment Migration: In some cases, the injected pigment may migrate from the original site, potentially affecting the uniformity of the eye color or, in rare instances, visual acuity.
  • Inflammatory Response: The body may react to the pigment or the procedure with an inflammatory response, which is typically controlled with medication.

Short-term and Long-term Risks

Understanding both the immediate and enduring risks associated with KTP is crucial for anyone considering the procedure.

  • Short-term Risks: Include temporary discomfort, redness, or swelling of the eye, usually subsiding within a few days post-procedure with proper care.
  • Long-term Risks: While less common, long-term considerations include the potential need for pigment touch-ups or adjustments and the rare risk of chronic eye conditions exacerbated by the procedure.


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